Sergiev Posad is named in honour of Saint Sergiy, who founded the monastery largest in Russia. Per 1919 the city has been renamed in Sergiev, and in 1930ã. - into Zagorsk, in honour of the revolutionar M. Zagorskiy. But in 1991 the historical name at last has been returned to city.
The beginning to city has put Trinity monastery. Glory of Saint Sergiy and the monastery attracted to a monastery pious and pilgrims. Peasants also gradually began to lodge near to a monastery. The first settlements which have begun the future city, were villages Kokuevo, Panino and Klementievo.
Troitsky the monastery always was the large land owner. The grounds belonged a monastery had greater(big) state privileges that promoted development of trade and crafts. In territory around of a monastery large villages masterovykh people were gradually created. So have appeared Ikonnaya and povarskaya, Konyushennaya and telezhnaya, Pushkarskaya and Streletskaya large villages.
In 1782 to large villages and villages has been appropriated(given) the status posada and the name "Sergievsky". Capital construction in city conducted basically only Laurels. Nearby from a monastery monastic hotels, almshouses, a bench have been constructed, profitable houses, etc. Such construction was promoted by inflow bogomoltsev, increased in connection with construction of the arranged well highway (1845) and opening of the railway (1865) between Moscow and Sergiev Posad. The economic life of city also was in dependence from needs of a monastery. In connection with a great demand at pilgrims on subjects of a religious cult manufacture of crosses, candlesticks, icons, etc. here has been developed
But the greatest popularity was won sergievskaya with a toy. Not without reason Sergiev Posad named « capital of an amusing empire ». To buy(purchase) a toy from walls Laurels - means to make charitable business. In fact itself Saint Sergy cut toys on a fun to children. The monastery did not lag behind local industrialists.
Monks in XIX century developed wide economic activities: own enterprises — brick-works, paper-mills, a printing house have been created. These institutions leased or were served by hired workers.
Now Sergiev Posad - the largest administrative, industrial, cultural and tourist center of Moscow suburbs, a pearl of " the Gold Ring ». A convenient site of city on the transport arteries connecting regions of Russia with Moscow, fine automobile and a railway communication promote development of city and area.
The monastery costs(stands) to a Trinity-?NOu?No on low hill Makovtse, at merge of small rivers Konchury and Vondyugi. The monastery has been based(founded,established) in 30-O-40th years of XIV century by brothers Varfolomey and Stefanom. Varfolomey who has accepted a monastic dignity with name Sergy, has become history not only as the founder of a monastery, but also as the active supporter of the Moscow princes supported association of Russian grounds around of Moscow. It(he) has blessed prince Dmitry Donskogo before Kulikovskoj fight.
Per 1355 in Troitsk a monastery for the first time in northeast Russia has been entered obshchezhitijnyj the charter that has caused reorganization of all monastery. The monastery began to resemble the small wooden small town consisting of three parts: public, inhabited and defensive. Behind a strong fencing - a rectangular kely, inside of which - church and trapeznaya. It is curious, that this lay-out the monastery has carried by through all the subsequent centuries and has kept up to now.
Saint Sergy has died in 1392 In 1422 canonization Prepodobogo Sergiya and a bookmark belokamennogo Troitskogo a cathedral above its(his) tomb took place.
In a monastery Ivan Terrible within which board the great value was given to transformation of a monastery into the powerful fortress had great value on approaches to Moscow has received a christening. Instead of a wooden fencing in 1540-1550ãã. The powerful wall with towers from a brick and a stone has been built.
Per 1608-1610 the monastery sixteen months was in osade the ïîëüñêî-Lithuanian interventionists. The feat of defenders of a monastery has got wide popularity and promoted growth of authority of a monastery.
At Peter I the monastery still kept value of an imperial fortress. In 1689 during streletskogo revolt in Moscow tsar Peter was covered behind walls of a monastery.
In 1744 the monastery has been awarded by the decree of empress Elizabeth Petrovny of a honorary title Laurels that emphasized a predominating role of a monastery among other church establishments.
With 1919 for 1946 the monastery has been closed. Temples have been withdrawn from conducting a monastery, monks are dispersed or subjected to repression.
Today Laurels - an operating(a working) man's monastery, the spiritual center of orthodox Russia. In territory of a monastery there is Moscow Spiritual academy and seminary, and also memorial estate. All of them in own way serve preservation of spiritual traditions, history and monuments of this surprising place where the soul of Russia is alive. Numerous lavrskie the constructions erected during XV-XIX of centuries by the best masters of Russia, represent the original grant(manual) on histories of Russian architecture, a museum open-air. The architectural ensemble to the Trinity-?NOu?No«® Laurels is included in the list of the world heritage of UNESCO.
The most ancient churches of Sergiev Posad are located with the southeast party(side) from the Trinity-?NOu?No«® laurels , at ponozhiya a hill, « on the Hem » - church of Introduction in temple Presvyatoj of the Virgin and a temple of martyress Paraskeva Pyatnitsy. In 1547 on a place wooden prikhodskoj churches Sluzhnej of a large village were built at once by two stone churches. Vvedenskaya the church has been constructed with support of boyar I.Khabarova, construction Pyatnitskoj of church financed Troitsky a monastery.
The art Pedagogical Museum of the Toy is based(founded,established) in 1918 In Sergiev Posad there is a scientific research institute of a toy and unique in the country college of a toy. Together with a museum of a toy this unusual complex keeps behind city glory « capitals of an amusing empire ». The Russian nested doll known all over the world here was born.
In expositions of a museum the history of Russian toy is tracked(looked after), here there is an opportunity to lead digression to area of children's culture of many foreign countries.
Eleven kilometers separate Sergiev Posad from the city of Khotkovo located on the river the Page. The basic annals of city has begun with occurrence here in 1308 of the most ancient in Moscow suburbs Pokrovskogo of Khotkovo of a monastery.
According to Life Saint Sergiya Radonezhskogo monastic postrizhenie the brother Saint Stefan here has accepted, here there were pogrebeny their parents - the Rostov boyars Cyril and Maria.
Firstly existed as a monastery of the mixed type for residing here both men, and women, in 1544 pokrovsky the monastery has been transferred(transmitted) by the imperial letter under management to the Trinity-?NOu?Noa of a monastery and transformed in maiden.
One of Peter's I decrees in a monastery had been invited skilled workers lacy and zolotoshvejnogo business(affairs) from Holland which trained nuns in these arts. Therefore bogomoltsy, gone on the Trinity, the lace or skilfully embroidered scarf tried to get all.
Now the monastery is represented with constructions XVIII-XIX of centuries. The main things from them - pokrovsky a cathedral (1811-1816) and Nikolsky a temple (1899-1904).
The settlement Radonezh has arisen on the river the Page approximately in XI century
With Radonezhem the name Saint Sergiya Radonezhskogo, which being the adolescent, veins in Radonezhe together with parents is connected.
The first Radonezhskim prince was Andrey Vladimirovich, the son of well-known associate Dmitry Donskogo in Kulikovskoj Vladimir Khrabrogo's to fight. At Andrey Vladimiroviche Radonezh became capital of the small specific princedom protected Moscow from the north. By this time Radonezh from village turns to city.
During events of " vague time » Radonezh has become empty. It(he) has been welcome by the imperial decree in 1616 Troitskomu to a monastery which has moved on territory Radonezha of peasants from other ancestral lands. The settlement with the name Small town has revived.
Near to the Preobrazhenskiy temple (1836-1842), constructed with support of parishioners, in 1988 is established(installed) a monument Saint Sergiyu. At bottom the stone with an inscription « Sergiyu Radonezhskomu grateful Russia » lays. In 1989 Small town ancient name Radonezh is returned to village.